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Latest Research Statistics
On Domestic Violence:

CAEPV report to inventory the various ways private companies are utilizing workplace programs to prevent intimate partner violence. Aug. 2006

STUDY FINDS ALMOST HALF OF WOMEN IMPACTED BY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THEIR ADULT LIVES May 2006

OFFICE FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME LAUCHES ONLINE INTERACTIVE CALENDAR Feb. 2006

MANY DOCTORS DO NOT DOCUMENT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Dec. 2005

Update on Reduction in Domestic Violence from the June 2005 Newsletter

The Violence Policy Center (VPC) recently released When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2002 Homicide Data October 2004

Results of Survey of Domestic Violence Court Defendants: Understanding of Court Ordered Conditions; Hennepin County (Mpls), 2002. July 2004

From the Corporate Alliance to End Partner Violence (CAEPV):
Batterer Intervention Program Study Info July 2004

Statistics on Adolescent bullying and harassment July 2004

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE WORKPLACE PROGRAMS -- ARE THEY SUCCESSFUL? June 2004

Older Women Abused as Often as Younger Ones April 2004

**Fulfilling our Vision: Changes in the domestic violence movement 1975-2004 April 2004

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ACT (VAWA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACTS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE  (From CAEPV April 2004

Study shows hostile men more prone to strokes March 2004

Workplace violence  (from the CAEPV newsletter) Feb. 2004

IN THE NEWS - HR PROFESSIONALS CONCERNED ABOUT WORKPLACE VIOLENCE From NAEPV Newsletter   Feb. 2004

Interpersonal Violence Associated with the Military: Facts and Findings from the Miles Foundation January 2004

Miles foundation alerts us to these Defense Department funded projects:

Violence Against Women around the world: Explanation of the International Day Against Domestic Violence

The Security and Financial Empowerment Act

A New web partnership between UNIFEM'S Women War and Peace web portal AND Women's International League for Peace and Freedom¹s PEACEWOMEN.ORG

NEW WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION REPORT IS FIRST EVER GLOBAL REPORT ON VIOLENCE AND HEALTH November 2003

Domestic Homicides Decrease 71% for men,
25% for women since the mid 70s

Non-fatal DV incidents decrease 49% for females,
42% for males since 1993

News on DV in the United Kingdom

WORKPLACE FATALITIES DECREASE IN 2002

Perpetrator Treatment/intervention programs:

Nationwide survey of causes of domestic homicide

Research on children who suffer family violence: from CAEPV

Aggression in Women

Women's Fears about DV

Costs of DV in the US:

WOMEN'S ABUSE EXPERIENCE AND THEIR HIV STATUS


CAEPV report to inventory the various ways private companies are utilizing workplace programs to prevent intimate partner violence. Aug. 2006

To view the inventory on the CAEPV website (the only place it is currently available), visit http://www.caepv.org/membercenter/library/docDetail.asp?doc_id=457&cat_id=1. CAEPV is pleased to announce the release of a report to inventory the various ways private companies are utilizing workplace programs to prevent intimate partner violence. Part of a seven month-long study, CAEPV has been working with RTI International to identify and detail workplace programs throughout the United States through a contract funded by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  We are honored to have been able to assist RTI in this CDC-funded project to develop an inventory of workplace programs to address intimate partner violence, and we congratulate the many CAEPV companies that participated in the inventory!
This project was developed with the intention of subsequent information initiating continued evaluation of the impact of programs and their level of cost-effectiveness for companies. It is anticipated that the compiled statistics will benefit not only employees and their safety, but will provide guidance on the most effective use of time and money by the employers as well. RTI International researchers anticipate that this will be a helpful and important tool for both understanding and addressing intimate partner violence (IPV) and its impact on the workplace.


From the CAPEV update: IN THE NEWS -- STUDY FINDS ALMOST HALF OF WOMEN IMPACTED BY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THEIR ADULT LIVES May 2006

Domestic violence has impacted about 44% of women at some point during their adult lives, according to a recently published survey.

Considerably fewer women, about 15%, reported domestic violence within the past five years, and that figure fell to about 8% for incidents in the past year, reported Robert S. Thompson, M.D., of the Group Health Center for Health Studies here in the June issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.   The study analyzed data from telephone interviews of more than 3,500 women enrolled in the Group Health Cooperative (GHC), a large non-profit health maintenance organization serving Washington State and northern Idaho.

"The findings are important in helping to establish that the prevalence is very high in educated, employed U.S . women with healthcare coverage, which indicates that intimate partner violence is a problem for the entire population, not just certain subgroups ," Dr. Thompson and colleagues said.  (Emphasis CAEPV)

The study distinguished between physical abuse, which included hitting, shoving, or forced sex, and non-physical abuse, such as angry threats. About 34% of women reported any type of physical abuse during their lifetime, and about 35% reported any type of non-physical abuse. About 11% reported forced sex at some time during their life.  The study also found that about half (45%) of abused women suffered more than one type of abuse.

Another study in the same issue of the journal emphasized the negative health consequences of domestic violence. Compared with women who had never experienced domestic violence, those who had suffered any type were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of severe depression (odds ratio= 2.6; 95% confidence interval=1.9 to 3.6), according to Amy Bonomi, Ph.D., also of the Group Health Center for Health Studies in Seattle.  And women who had experienced recent physical or sexual violence were about three times more likely to report being in only fair or poor health (OR= 2.81; 95% CI=1.54 to 5.13), Dr. Bonomi and colleagues found.  (Source:  MedPage Today)


From the CAPEV update:
IN THE NEWS -- OFFICE FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME LAUCHES ONLINE INTERACTIVE CALENDAR Feb. 2006

Visit http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/ovccalendar for the Office for Victims of Crime's (OVC's) latest Web tool designed to keep professionals informed about what's happening in the field. OVC's Calendar of Events helps crime victim service providers and allied professionals stay in touch with all of the latest victim assistance conferences, trainings, ceremonies, and other events throughout the Nation. You can scan events coming up next week, next month, or even next year, sign up to be notified of victim-related events as they are added, or promote your own event to a national audience.


June 2005 Newsletter
Last, but certainly not least, I wanted to leave you with two pieces of GOOD NEWS. The first piece of news is something which we have worked on now for fifteen years—a dramatic decline in domestic violence. The second announces the reintroduction of the VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) to congress. Silent Witness had a part to play in the first VAWA legislation when Senator Paul Wellstone invited us to bring the Minnesota Witnesses to Washington to stand in the rotunda of the Russell Office building. Half of the senators had offices there and walked through that rotunda on their way to the Capitol. Paul told us that many of them commented to him that the issue of domestic violence became more real to them as a result of reading the stories on the chest plates of our Witnesses. Tipper Gore walked through the exhibit while it was housed there and was deeply moved by the stories too. And the guard in the building told us that he had volunteered at a shelter for awhile and that he felt personally protective our of “ladies.” There are so many beautiful and moving stories generated by these powerful Silent Witnesses. Thank you all for the part you have played in keeping the hope alive.



DOMESTIC VIOLENCE RATE FALLS BY MORE THAN HALF IN US (from CAEPV newsletter)

Washington, DC -- The rate of family violence fell by more than half between 1993 and 2002, mirroring an overall downward trend of violent crime during the same period, the Bureau of Justice Statistics announced on June 12. In 1993, an estimated 5.4 victims per 1,000 people age 12 or older were victimized by a family member, such as a spouse or parent. In 2002, however, that had fallen to 2.1 family violence victims per 1,000 people 12 or older. Family violence as a proportion of all violent crimes remained about the same. Between 1993 and 2002, the most recent year for which data were available, about one in 10 violent crimes were committed by the victims' family members.

Simple assault was the most frequent type of violent offense. Murder accounted for less than one-half of 1 percent of all family violence between 1998 and 2002 -- the most recent years analyzed for the report. The report looked back to 1993 -- the year the survey was redesigned -- for a long-term trend in family violence, but analyzed the most recent years to glean detailed information on patterns of crime. Almost half of the 3.5 million victims of family violence between 1998 and 2002 were spouses. Fewer than one in 100 died as a result. The study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that:

--73 percent of victims were female.

--75 percent of offenders were male.

--Most violence happened in or near the victim's home.

--74 percent of victims were white.

--Most victims were between ages 25 and 54.

--79 percent of offenders were white; most were at least 30 years old.

--Approximately 1 in 5 people murdered in 2002 were killed by a family member.

Family violence is measured through the National Crime Victimization Survey, based on survey interviews with samples of the U.S. population. It is also measured through the FBI's National Incident Based Reporting System, based on statistics compiled by local police departments. To view the full report visit the Justice Department's Office of Justice Programs at


From the CAPEV update: IN THE NEWS -- STUDY FINDS ALMOST HALF OF WOMEN IMPACTED BY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THEIR ADULT LIVES

Domestic violence has impacted about 44% of women at some point during their adult lives, according to a recently published survey.

Considerably fewer women, about 15%, reported domestic violence within the past five years, and that figure fell to about 8% for incidents in the past year, reported Robert S. Thompson, M.D., of the Group Health Center for Health Studies here in the June issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.   The study analyzed data from telephone interviews of more than 3,500 women enrolled in the Group Health Cooperative (GHC), a large non-profit health maintenance organization serving Washington State and northern Idaho.

"The findings are important in helping to establish that the prevalence is very high in educated, employed U.S . women with healthcare coverage, which indicates that intimate partner violence is a problem for the entire population, not just certain subgroups ," Dr. Thompson and colleagues said.  (Emphasis CAEPV)

The study distinguished between physical abuse, which included hitting, shoving, or forced sex, and non-physical abuse, such as angry threats. About 34% of women reported any type of physical abuse during their lifetime, and about 35% reported any type of non-physical abuse. About 11% reported forced sex at some time during their life.  The study also found that about half (45%) of abused women suffered more than one type of abuse.

Another study in the same issue of the journal emphasized the negative health consequences of domestic violence. Compared with women who had never experienced domestic violence, those who had suffered any type were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of severe depression (odds ratio= 2.6; 95% confidence interval=1.9 to 3.6), according to Amy Bonomi, Ph.D., also of the Group Health Center for Health Studies in Seattle.  And women who had experienced recent physical or sexual violence were about three times more likely to report being in only fair or poor health (OR= 2.81; 95% CI=1.54 to 5.13), Dr. Bonomi and colleagues found. 

(Source:  MedPage Today)


MANY DOCTORS DO NOT DOCUMENT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Dec.2005
 Nearly a third of U.S. doctors surveyed in a recent poll said they don't keep a record when their patients report domestic violence, and 90 percent don't document domestic violence adequately, new research shows.  Those inadequate doctors' reports also don't record whether the doctors offered support and information about domestic violence to patients who might have needed that type of assistance.
Reporting in the November 20 issue of the journal BMC Family Practice, researchers led by Megan Gerber of Harvard Medical School analyzed doctors' reports on 90 patients, all victims of domestic violence.
In 26 of those 90 cases, the doctor's report did not document that the patient had mentioned an incident of domestic violence, the researchers found. Only 10 percent of the doctors' reports recorded that the physician offered some information to patients about where to get help for domestic violence and assisted patients in developing a list of steps to remove themselves from the situation.  A third of doctors surveyed said they didn't feel confident in counseling patients who reported domestic violence. (Source:  Forbes.com)  


WASHINGTON, DC -- The Violence Policy Center (VPC) recently released When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2002 Homicide Data. This annual report, which details national and state-by-state information on female homicides involving one female murder victim and one male offender, illustrates the unique role firearms play in female homicide. The study is being released to coincide with Domestic Violence Awareness Month in October.

In 2002, the most recent data available from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's unpublished Supplementary Homicide Report, firearms were the most common weapon used by males to murder females (928 of 1,733 or 54 percent). Of these, 73 percent (679 of 928) were committed with handguns. Alaska ranks first in the nation in the rate of women killed by men. Ranked behind Alaska are: Louisiana, New Mexico, Nevada, Wyoming, South Carolina, Tennessee, Delaware, North Carolina, and Alabama. Nationally the rate was 1.37 per 100,000.

Study author Marty Langley states, "These numbers should serve as a wake-up call to the states with the highest rates of female homicide. In identifying solutions to domestic violence, the role firearms play must be addressed." (Source:  The Violence Policy Center with thanks to Barry Nixon for forwarding this information.)


From the Corporate Alliance to End Partner Violence (CAEPV):
Batterer Intervention Program Study Info July 2004 : www.nicic.org - This link on the National Institute of Corrections web site leads to the document, "Do Batterer Intervention Programs Work? Two Studies."  Results from two studies regarding the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs are relayed. Sections of this report include: Broward County -- does stake-in-conformity matter most ; types of batterer interventions; Brooklyn -- is longer treatment more effective; program and research issues; and new directions for protecting victims (e.g., rethinking intervention, linking batterer programs to other programs and responses, and improving evaluations). "Neither program changed subjects' [male batterers] attitudes toward domestic violence (p. 1)."


Statistics on Adolescent bullying and harassment July 2004
The Empower organization (home of Rosaline Wiseman, author of Queen Bees and Wannabees which was the basis for the movie Mean Girls) has  posted some interesting information on adolescent bullying. They say, “Virtually every study indicates that between 30% and 40% of all school-aged youth report that they are affected by bullying behavior; sixty percent of students who are identified as bullies between grades 6 and 9 had at least one criminal conviction by the age of twenty four; and studies show that school-based intervention programs can reduce bullying by 30% to 50%.  For more on this and/or more information on the successful school based initiatives that Empower offers, contact them at www.empowerprogram.org


Results of Survey of Domestic Violence Court Defendants: Understanding of Court Ordered Conditions; Hennepin County (Mpls), 2002. July 2004
 
Background: The Fourth Judicial District initiated a new domestic violence court calendar on November 13, 2000 .  This court calendar handles arraignment and pre-trial hearings for all in-custody and out-of-custody domestic violence cases in the city of Minneapolis .
            
Several evaluations of the domestic violence court calendar have either recently been completed or are currently in process. In fall 2001, the Hennepin County District Court Research Division completed a case processing and disposition analysis which showed that cases were being processed more efficiently in the new court, and that the conviction rate had risen nearly 20%.  Early in 2002, the Research Division distributed a report that documented the results of a telephone survey of victims whose cases had gone through domestic violence court.  This study found that regardless of the outcomes of their cases, victims were extremely satisfied with how they were treated by court personnel.  Over 70% of survey respondents were satisfied with the outcomes of their cases, and 68% felt that the judges cared about their situations.  Victims’ levels of satisfaction with how they were treated by the judges were at least as favorable as their levels of satisfaction with their own advocates. Currently, the Research Division is executing an analysis of recidivism data for defendants seen in domestic violence court, as well as an update of the case processing and disposition analysis.
 
This study responds to the question of whether or not defendants understand their court conditions.  Many domestic violence defendants violate their conditions of release and/or miss subsequent court dates, thus slowing down the justice process.  Before this study, it was unclear whether it was because they were choosing to disobey the court, or because they did not truly understand what the court expected of them. By executing this defendant survey, we are able to assess whether or not the court is communicating with all defendants effectively and uniformly. In short, the theory behind this study is that if defendants can articulate their court conditions just after leaving the courtroom, the reason that they violate their conditions later on rests with themselves, and does not necessarily imply a need for courtroom personnel to improve their methods of communication.
 
 FINDINGS: 80% of domestic violence court defendants could articulate the no contact order just after leaving court. 97% of domestic violence court defendants who had another court appearance scheduled knew when they were supposed to return to court.  69% of domestic violence defendants who were told not to use any non-prescription drugs or alcohol could restate this condition. Conditions such as “remain law abiding” and “make all court appearances” may have been implied, but were not clearly stated in the courtroom and may need to be. Half of the defendants surveyed did not seem to understand the consequences of non-compliance with court conditions.
Defendants were more apt to understand their court conditions if they were given paperwork to refer to that stated them. Defendants were more apt to understand their court conditions if they felt the judge addressed them directly. If we look at the most frequent courtroom communications – i.e., the no contact order and the assignment of a new court date – 90% of defendants could articulate what they were told by the bench following their court appearance.

For more information contact: Deborah A. Eckberg, Ph.D.612.348.2811deborah.eckberg@co.hennepin.mn.us


Older Women Abused as Often as Younger Ones: Study  By Amy Norton

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Women in their 50s and beyond report suffering physical and verbal abuse at a rate similar to that of younger women, a large U.S. study shows. The study of nearly 92,000 women ages 50 to 79 found that at the outset 10,200 said they had been abused sometime in the past year. Three years later, over 2,400 more women reported newly suffering abuse, according to findings published in the April issue of the American Journal of Public Health.

Dr. Charles Mouton and his colleagues gathered their figures using data from the Women's Health Initiative, a national medical study of postmenopausal women. At the start of the study and again three years later, participants were asked whether a family member or friend had physically abused them in the past year. They were also asked about verbal abuse such as put-downs, severe criticism and threats. Overall, 11 percent of women reported some form of abuse at the study's start, with 89 percent of them saying they'd been subjected to verbal abuse alone.

Verbal abuse, Mouton said, can cause both physical and mental harm. Research has linked it to stress and depression, and people who suffer verbal abuse tend to report poorer physical and psychological health. Among women in the study, those in their 50s were more likely to report abuse than older women were, and low income was associated with a higher risk of any type of abuse. Black women were nearly three times more likely than white women to say they'd been physically abused, but white women reported more verbal abuse.

According to the researchers, most studies on abuse have focused on younger women or on frail elderly adults, who are at risk of abuse by caregivers. The new findings, they say, show that healthy older women may suffer rates of abuse comparable to, or even higher, than those of younger women. Mouton said he thinks doctors need to be more aware of the potential for abuse among their older female patients. He noted that he routinely screens such patients for abuse, although studies have not yet shown whether routine screening is effective in spotting and stopping abuse.

SOURCE: American Journal of Public Health, April 2004. Sent by Lois Herman.


DOMESTIC VIOLENCE WORKPLACE PROGRAMS -- ARE THEY SUCCESSFUL? June 2004
Harman International Industries, Incorporated <http://www.harman.com>  is a leading manufacturer of high-quality, high fidelity audio products and electronic systems for the consumer and professional markets. Many of you know Lynn Harman, and her commitment to addressing domestic violence as a workplace issue -- but you may not know why. Harman's workplace domestic violence awareness program began in 2001, after a much beloved Harman employee of 24 years was killed by her ex-husband one block from her home in Northridge, California. Following this tragedy, Harman International made a commitment to stop domestic violence and help victims.

Does the program work?  A recently released evaluation of Harman's workplace domestic violence program, conducted by Beverly Younger Urban, Ph.D., LCSW, found the following:

After the domestic violence training, 91 percent of employees said they were now more likely to know where to refer someone who is abused for help, 89 percent said they were now more likely to be supportive of a colleague who is abused, and 86 percent said they were now more aware of what to do if there is a threat of domestic violence at work.


The training caused a “highly significant increase” in the number of employees who said they know the signs of abuse, they know where to refer a victim to get help, and they know who to contact if they know an employee who might be attacked at work.

Employees’ attitudes about domestic violence were more supportive of victims after the training than before it. In this statistically significant finding, about 20 percent more employees had highly supportive answers after the training.
Responding to questions about the training, about three-quarters of Harman employees agreed that the training sessions increased their awareness and readiness to respond to domestic violence.

The domestic violence training sessions for employees lasted one hour; the sessions for managers lasted two hours. Nearly 1,200 Harman International employees at eight different facilities completed feedback forms in English or Spanish after their training. Another group of approximately 500 employees in Harman’s California facility responded to a more comprehensive four-page survey before and after the training. According to that survey, more than one-third of employees and nearly half of female employees said they had experienced either physical or non-physical abuse sometime in their lives. (Source:  Family Violence Prevention Fund web site.)

WORKPLACE SHOOTINGS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
In their report entitled Terror Nine to Five: Guns in the American Workplace 1994 - 2003, Handgun Free America found that in the past decade (1994 - 2003) there were 164 workplace shootings in America with a total of 290 people killed and an additional 161 people injured.  The group also found that at least 13.4 % of the incidents reviewed involved the shooting of a current or former intimate partner. To read the entire report, visit
http://www.handgunfree.org/HFAMain/workshootings.pdf

Sibling Violence  Linked to Dating Violence
Florida -- Brothers and sisters who  fight while growing up lay the groundwork for battering their dates by the  time they get to college, a new University of Florida study finds.  The survey found that dating violence was more common among partners who had punched, shoved or otherwise abused their siblings than those who had not.  The study examined what happens between the ages of 10 and 14, when sibling  violence peaks, she said.

More than  three-fourths of people in the survey -- 78 percent -- reported being pushed  or shoved by a sibling, while nearly as many -- 77 percent -- said they had  pushed or shoved a sibling. Fifty-five percent said their sibling punched or hit them with something that could hurt, while half said they had done this to  their sibling. One-quarter reported being slammed against a wall, and 27 percent said they had done the same to a sibling, she said.

Overall, 9 percent  said a sibling had used a knife or gun against them, while nearly 6 percent  overall reported using a knife or gun against a sibling. The highest level of sibling violence was found between two brothers  and the least between two sisters. No differences were  found based on race or whether children had grown up in broken homes.  The survey of 538 men and women was conducted at a community  college in Hillsborough County, Florida. The research appears in a supplement  to the March/April 2004 issue of the American Journal of Health  Behavior.


Fulfilling our Vision: Changes in the domestic violence movement 1975-2004 Janet Hagberg

Reports and statistics are showing us, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that the domestic violence movement, in collaboration with community wide efforts, has made enormous strides to reduce or eliminate domestic violence in the US. Domestic homicides are down 68% for men, 25% for women since 1975. Non-fatal domestic assaults are down 49% since 1994. Two states have gone without a single domestic homicide of women for one year; North Dakota and Vermont. We have legislation, services, programs and a reauthorization of VAWA coming up. Many states have cut back on funding and it is a hard time for many government and non-profit agencies. I thought this would be a good time to write about progress we have made as a movement and what we can do in the future.

Here is my perspective on the strong foundations we started with, and a few things we have learned to help us move forward to even more success in the future. I don't mean for this to be exhaustive, nor inclusive of all aspects of the movement, but more of a view from the programmatic side of the movement. I am open to others who have more to add to this perspective. My intention in this summary is to encourage and support people who are interested in any of the programs that have emerged, in order to move their own community forward in the future--to move us all to zero domestic homicides by 2010. "0 by 2010"

Courts: In the seventies, the courts were seen as a large part of the problem, and many still are. However, much progress has been made in working with judges and courts to streamline the process, hold perpetrators (and courts) accountable, and track repeat offenders. (see Court Watch info in SW web site) We have learned that court appearances and threats of jail time seem to deter middle class and upper class men but are not as much of a deterrent for lower class men, or men who are used to being in the system. We have also seen recent information that some groups of women (African American for instance), do not see the courts as helping them stay safe, but instead depend on the community, especially the church. (see MS Foundation report, Justice for All).

Legislation, especially regarding police handling of DV cases and VAWA: This was covered quite clearly in the last newsletter. See our Silent Witness web archives to review that.

Shelter services:
In the mid-seventies, the fledgling DV movement started shelters in various states around the country but few people listened to the stories of the survivors or the activists. It took years and a lot of behind-the-scenes work in order for the country to acknowledge the issues facing women in abusive situations. Many women and men worked tirelessly and saw little progress. Ironically the O.J Simpson case brought the issues to national attention. We now have a large network of shelters and coordinated emergency telephone services to get women to shelters in the most efficient ways. We still have a shortage of shelter services, according to recent spokeswomen in the field. Even though recent research shows that shelters are more likely to save the lives of men than women, they still provide vital emergency housing for women in crisis and a way to reach women with healing programs.

Programs and treatment of women (and men) survivors: As part of our services to battered women, we provided them with safety planning and support groups. These were necessary in order for women to get on their feet and move forward. We have done a great job of reaching battered women with theses services. We also learned that, even though women were not to blame for their abuse, many women had a tendency to return to their abuser (for reasons of security, fear, child rearing, economic dependence, love) or to get involved with another abusive man. Therefore other services have emerged that would address the issues that women needed to face in order to heal and to gain the courage to leave. Emotional regulation models that addressed the anxiety, fear and anger of survivors were shown to be highly effective with women. (See emotional models on SW web site). Longer term housing programs for women, which involve therapy, have had phenomenal success, allowing them to live independently of their abusers, get better jobs and get more schooling. (See Taos model on SW web site). Chemical dependency shelters have sprung up and/or separate substance abuse programs for survivors. Many shelters now accommodate men who are abused by their wives or male partners, and women who are abused by their female partners, as we acknowledge that abuse is wider spread than we, at first, recognized.

Perpetrator programs, attitudes:
For the first twenty years of the movement we held the general assumption that men who battered would not and could not change, therefore punishment was the preferred method of dealing with the issue. We also made education or treatment part of the punishment for perpetrators. A lot of research has shown that several programs actually do work. Some men do not change, but several programs, which have now been replicated in most of the states, have shown that behavior can change, and DV can be reduced. These programs are based on the latest brain studies and the use of emotional regulation through learned skills. Several new faith based programs have now shown that, for men who are religious, the addition of a faith dimension, adds a strong likelihood of success. (See treatment programs on SW web site, and for faith based programs, see Carolyn Rexius' program in the emotional regulation models on SW web site).

Adolescent and college age women's and men's programs:
The predominant programming we have used for schools has been educating young women and men about the dangers of abusive behavior and citing the characteristics of abusive relationships. These programs, including with videos, drama, posters, and speak-ins have brought the issues of abuse and violence to the schools. College campus programs have been far reaching, including making art exhibits, dramas, speak-ins, classes on the issue, papers and many other programs. Recent research and a program for adolescents has shown much progress in getting at deeper issues which makes teens more prone to abuse. These issues include what girls do to one another and what boys do to one another that makes them vulnerable to abuse or more likely to be abusive. The program, called Owning Up, is making headway in working with both genders to reduce dating violence. (See Owning Up on SW web site).

Community collaboration/involvement: With the help of the Duluth Model of community coordination and the Quincy and Nashville and San Diego models of coordinated criminal justice/community response, a host of programs have sprung up to collaborate on DV issues. Several cities have had success in reducing or eliminating DV homicides with coordinated responses from the courts, police, advocates, judges, and probation. The future of this effort seems to be coordinated service buildings, places in which survivors and perpetrators can get all the necessary services/treatment/referrals under one roof. Currently San Diego has the most comprehensive coordinated program, all under one roof.

Using art as a way to highlight DV issues and to help survivors:
Several arts and drama programs have sprung up around the country that highlight issues related to DV and sexual assault. One program has brought the arts into the shelters as a form of self reflection and healing. That is A Window Between Worlds, headquartered in LA. And, of course, Silent Witness' red life sized figures are now showing up all over the world.

Hospitals/ health care:
Many programs have addressed DV within the health care setting; from doctors' referrals, to emergency room evaluations, to the education of staff members and patients. If anyone has research findings on the effects of these programs on the reduction of DV, we would love to publish it in this newsletter and on our web site.

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April 2004 newsletter

IN THE NEWS  - VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ACT (VAWA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACTS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE  (From CAEPV)
 
A recent report assessing the impact of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) shows that the first major legislation addressing this issue has significantly helped the nation to begin to consider domestic violence a serious crime rather than a private family or personal problem. This Congressional report was released on March 11, 2004 by Representatives Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) and Louise M. Slaughter (D-NY), the Co-Chairs of the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, and Lifetime Television, at a Congressional briefing the Caucus and the Network organized as part of Lifetime's 3rd annual "Stop Violence Against Women Week."

The analysis by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) specifically states that stronger arrest policies included in VAWA have "changed the perception of the public, law enforcement officers, prosecutors and judges that domestic violence was a family problem that could be solved through mediation and other non-legal interventions, to one that requires a formal criminal justice sanction." This progress is evidenced in another finding of the report that the percentage of women who reported the crime of violence by an intimate partner -- a current or former husband or boyfriend -- in 1993 dramatically increased by 1998, from 48% to 59%. However, in a troublesome indicator that the battle has not yet been won, over half of victims who did not report their abuse to police did not do so because they viewed it as a "private or personal matter or because they were afraid of reprisal by the perpetrator."

In addition, from 1993 to 2001, according to the National Crime Victimization Survey, violence against women by an intimate partner has been cut in half. In 1993 1.1 million women were victims of nonfatal violent crimes compared to 588,490 female victims in 2001. Advocates cautioned, however, that it is important to note that the need for services remains high, as evidenced in findings in a recent National Network to End Domestic Violence survey, which showed that 250,000 women and children victims of domestic abuse have been turned away from support services because of a lack of resources available at the state and local levels.

Other key findings of the report include:
    * Young women are still at most risk and the institutions where they often reside -- colleges -- are not providing the required support: Young women, ages 20-24, have and continue to experience the highest rates of intimate partner violence. Yet, according to the Office of Justice Programs 2005 Congressional Budget submission, only 46 of the nation's colleges have  received the support of existing grants in VAWA.
    * States have enacted more laws to address violence against women and make it a more serious crime: Between just 1998 and 2000, states enacted over 660 laws on domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. Many states have made domestic violence a separate crime with increased penalties thereby emphasizing its seriousness. All states have passed laws to make stalking a crime; some have made it a felony.
    * Battered immigrants now receive greater protections: Prior to VAWA, a battered immigrant seeking residence in the United States was potentially dependent on a legally resident spouse or former spouse, giving the abusive intimate partner tremendous power. Special rules have been created to protect battered immigrants and allow them to remain in the U.S.
    * Racial and ethnic differences exist: From 1993-1998, the rate of intimate partner violence for black women was 35% higher than for white females. The percentages of black (67%) and Hispanic (65%) female victims of violence who reported the crime to the police were significantly higher than those of white women (50%). However, advocates caution that while violence crosses all ethnic and socioeconomic lines, women from minority groups, poor women and non-English speaking women may face multiple barriers in accessing support services, and therefore, increased incidence rates. This finding points to the need for culturally competent, accessible services for all victims.

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March 2004

Study shows hostile men more prone to strokes:
Hotheaded men who explode with anger seem to be at greater risk of having a stroke or dying, new research shows. Their risk is even greater than men who are simply stressed out type-A personalities. Angry women, on the other hand, don't run as high a risk of having a stroke or heart problems, according to a study released this week in the American Heart Association journal, Circulation. Men who express their anger have a 10 percent greater risk than non-hostile men of developing an atrial fibrillation, a heart flutter that 2 million Americans have. Men who vented their anger were also 29 percent more likely to have died from any cause during the study. Men who are generally hostile and comtemptuous of other people are 30 percent more likely to develop the irregular heart rhythm than men with less hostility.

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Workplace violence  (from the CAEPV newsletter) Feb. 2004
Workplace violence continues to be a leading concern for American businesses, according to Pinkerton Consulting & Investigations' 10th annual survey of Fortune 1000 corporate security professionals.  Workplace violence has held first place for the last five years and has ranked first or near the top of the list in each of Pinkerton's previous surveys.

The total costs associated with workplace violence are estimated at $36 billion annually and affects over two million Americans every year, according  to the study called "Top Security Threats and Management Issues Facing Corporate America."  More than 5,000 cases of workplace violence still are reported every day in this country, according to Pinkerton.

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From February 6, 2004 Newsletter

IN THE NEWS - HR PROFESSIONALS CONCERNED ABOUT WORKPLACE VIOLENCE From NAEPV Newsletter

The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) reports that more than half (57 percent) of HR professionals are somewhat or very concerned about workplace violence according to the SHRM(r) Workplace Violence Survey, released 1/20/04. HR professionals are taking the lead to address security concerns within their organizations and are responding with increased background checking for potential employees and greater security precautions. Compared to a similar survey done by SHRM in 1996, the number of respondents reporting they conduct criminal background checks has increased by 29 percent. Eighty percent of HR professionals now say they conduct such checks and 35 percent conduct credit checks to screen potential employees, an increase of 16 percent from 1996. Eighty-two percent of HR professionals report their organizations investigate the background of potential employees. This is up from 66 percent in 1996.

As evidence that current events are causing increased security concerns, about one-third of HR professionals (35 percent) say they believe employees at their organizations have increased concerns about workplace violence post September 11, 2001. Another 11 percent report increased employee concerns due to the war in Iraq. The majority (60 percent) of organizations look to their HR department to develop workplace violence prevention programs to help create a safe work environment as part of the overall business strategy. Although the majority of HR professionals reported no change in the number of violent incidents in the workplace, 12 percent did report an increase in the number of such incidents.

The majority of workplace violence involves incidents of vulgar language or verbal abuse. Of the HR professionals that reported violent acts in their own workplace, more than 70 percent had occurrences between employees, 34 percent had employee-to- supervisor incidents and 22 percent had conflicts between a supervisor and an employee. Domestic disputes continue to be a source of violence in the workplace with approximately 10 percent of respondents reporting girlfriend/boyfriend-to-employee incidents and an additional 10 percent reporting incidents between a spouse and an employee.

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Interpersonal Violence Associated with the Military: Facts and Findings from the Miles Foundation

Recent estimates suggest that domestic violence in the military rose from 18.6 per 1000 in 1990 to 25.6 per 1000 in 1996. On average each fiscal year from 1990 to 1996, 23.2 per 1000 spouses of military personnel experienced a violent victimization.-FY90-96, Spouse & Child Maltreatment, Department of Defense
       ~ In FY 2001, 18,000 reported cases of spouse abuse occurred involving military personnel. Eleven thousand were substantiated, rate of substantiated aggression of 16.5 per 1000.-Symposium on DV Prevention Research, 2002
       ~The demographic characteristics of victims indicates that the victim is predominantly female, civilian spouse of active duty personnel who are, on average slightly less than 25 years old. The spouse abuse victims have children (78%) and more than half have been married for two years or less. Fifty-two percent of the victims live off the installation.-Abuse Victims Study, DoD, 1994 and Final Report on Spouse Abuse, Caliber Associates, 1996
~The predominant type of substantiated spouse abuse is physical abuse .   Eighty-five percent of the abuse is physical abuse.-Final Report on Spouse Abuse, Caliber Associates, 1996;
~Of the substantiated cases in 2001, 57% involved mild abuse; 36%, moderate; and 7%, severe . -Symposium on DV Prevention Research, 2002
     ~Thirty-three percent of the substantiated offenders are involved in mutual abuse.-Final Report on Spouse Abuse, Caliber Associates, 1996
~Offenders are somewhat less likely to be promoted and somewhat more likely to be separated from the Service.  The fear of negative consequences is probably out of proportion to the true impact.-Abuse Victims Study, DoD, 1994    
~Seventy-five to eighty-four percent of alleged offenders are honorably discharged.-Abuse Victims Study, DoD, 1994
~Although data are hard to obtain, it is apparent that relatively few military personnel are prosecuted or administratively sanctioned on charges stemming from domestic violence.-Initial Report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence, 2001
~Less than seven percent of spouse abuse cases are adjudicated by court-marital.-Symposium on DV Prevention Research, 2002
     ~Rates of marital aggression are considerably higher than civilian rates, double, three to five times.- The War At Home , 60 Minutes, January 17, 1999; Heyman and Neidig. (1999). A comparison of spousal agression prevalence rates in U.S. Army and civilian representative samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinicial Psychology, 67 (2), 239-242; Gelles, Sixty Minutes Battered the Truth, OpEd, Washington Times, 1999; Rosen, Brennan, Martin, and Knudson. (August 2002).  Intimate Partner Violence and US Army Soldiers in Alaska, Military Medicine ; The War At Home , 60 Minutes, September 1, 2002.
     ~Domestic violence homicides in the military community include:
          ~Navy or Marine Corps: 12 in FY 99; 54 since FY 95
           ~Army:  32 in FY 99; 131 since FY 95
           ~Air Force:  4 in FY 99; 32 since FY95-Initial Report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence, DoD, 2001

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January 23, 2004 Newsletter

Miles foundation alerts us to these Defense Department funded projects:
The RAND Corporation has released two issue papers relative to collaboration between military and civilian communities in response to domestic violence.  The issue papers, Formalizing Collaboration and Approaches to Making Military-Civilian Domestic Violence Collaborations Work, are available at
http://www.rand.org/publications/IP/IP254/IP254.html    http://www.rand.org/publications/IP/IP254.1/IP254.1pdf  Adobe Acrobat is required to download, read, and print the document.

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January 9, 2004 Newsletter
Violence Against Women around the world: Explanation of the International Day Against Domestic Violence

SUNDRY STROKES By Rosalinda L. Orosa The Philippine Star 01/03/2004 (partial article)
In December of 1999, the 54th session of the UN General Assembly declared Nov. 25 International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. The declaration goes back to 1960 when the three Mirabel sisters from the Dominican Republic were violently assassinated for their political activism. Known as the Unforgettable Butterflies, the sisters came to symbolize the crisis of violence against women.

The Philippine Committee of the UN Development Fund for women headed by Georgitta "Beng" Puyat sends us statistics on the violence against women around the world. In no country in the world are women safe from this type of violence (domestic violence). In Cambodia, 16 percent of women are physically abused by their husbands; in the UK, 30 percent are physically abused by partners or ex-partners; this figure is 52 percent in the West Bank; 21 percent in Nicaragua, 29 percent in Canada, and 22 percent in the US. Based on 48 surveys around the world, half of the women who die from homicides are killed by their current or former husbands or partners. Women are killed by guns, beatings and burns among numerous other forms of abuse. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, 13 percent  of deaths of women of reproductive age were homicides; of these, 60 percent were committed by the victims' partners.

Although a majority of countries now have legislation that addresses domestic violence, high levels of violence still persist. There is clearly a need for greater focus on implementation and enforcement of legislation, and an end to laws that emphasize family reunification over the rights of women and girls.

News on DV in the United Kingdom  ( from CAEPV)
Trade union representatives in the United Kingdom are to be offered training to understand and support colleagues experiencing domestic violence. The decision follows a Trade Union Congress (TUC) survey, which found that hundreds of union members had suffered domestic violence. The TUC received 403 responses to its survey of trade union members. Most of the respondents (88%) were women. More than half of the respondents (51%) had experienced domestic violence. Of the victims of domestic violence, 92% were women and nearly half (46%) said domestic violence affected their ability to do their job. As a result of domestic violence, victims experienced lack of confidence, nervousness, repeated crying, lack of sleep, lack of concentration and a loss of interest in their jobs. A third told their employers about their experiences and three-quarters said their employers had been helpful. Employer support included financial help, changing work hours, emergency leave and transport to and from work. The majority of employers do not have a policy on domestic violence. To address the issue the TUC has published Domestic violence: A guide for the workplace to help employers and trade union reps set up domestic violence policies at work. The guide is available from the TUC website.

Brendan Barber, TUC General Secretary, said: "This is not about unions and employers intruding into the home. Domestic violence does not stay behind close doors and its devastating effects do not stop when someone enters the workplace. Unions and employers can play an important role in identifying whether a colleague is experiencing violence at home and offering support to the victim through the difficult period."

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November 21, 2003 Nesletter

A New web partnership between UNIFEM'S Women War and Peace web portal AND Women's International League for Peace and Freedom¹s PEACEWOMEN.ORG www.womenwarpeace.org  < http://www.womenwarpeace.org >  and www.peacewomen.org < http://www.peacewomen.org >
October 31st 2003 marked the 3rd anniversary of the unanimous adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security. The night before, the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the PeaceWomen Project of the Women¹s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) UN Office, entered into a women, peace and security web partnership via UNIFEM¹s Women, War and Peace Web Portal and WILPF¹s PeaceWomen.org website.

UNIFEM's Women, War and Peace Web Portal is intended to promote a systematic flow of accurate and timely information about the impact of armed conflict on women and women's role in peace-building to, and among, national and international actors working on these issues. To achieve these ends, UNIFEM's web portal currently features gender analysis of armed conflict situations in the profiles of more than 30 countries and thematic profiles of key women, peace and security themes.To complement UNIFEM's web portal, WILPF's PeaceWomen Project has re-launched PeaceWomen.org to include more than 40 gendered conflict country profiles and key women, peace and security thematic profiles.

The Security and Financial Empowerment Act
(SAFE) was reintroduced in both the Senate (S. 1801) and House (H.R. 3420) on October 30, 2003. SAFE was originally introduced in July 2001 with the late Senator Paul Wellstone as lead sponsor. This bipartisan bill promotes employment stability, economic security, and safety for survivors of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, as well as for their families and household members. For a longer summary go to NOWLDEF at http://www.nowldef.org/html/issues/vio/SAFESummary.pdf )
Title I: Entitlement to Emergency Leave for Addressing Domestic or Sexual Violence.
Title II: Entitlement to Unemployment Compensation for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking.
Title III: Victims¹ Employment Sustainability.  
Title IV: Victims of Abuse Insurance Protection.
Title V: Workplace Safety Program Tax Credit .
Title VI: National Clearinghouse on Domestic and Sexual Violence in the Workplace Grant .

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First ever Global Report on Violence and Health released: NEW WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION REPORT IS FIRST EVER GLOBAL REPORT ON VIOLENCE AND HEALTH November 2003

GENEVA -- The World Report on Violence and Health is the first comprehensive report of its kind to address violence as a global public health problem. Violence kills more than 1.6 million people every year. Public health experts say these statistics are just the tip of the iceberg with the majority of violent acts being committed behind closed doors and going largely unreported. This report aims to shed light on these acts. In addition to the deaths, millions of people are left injured as a result of violence and suffer from physical, sexual, reproductive and mental health problems, says the first comprehensive World report on violence and health released today by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The death and disability caused by violence make it one of the leading public health issues of our time, says the report. Violence is among the leading causes of death for people aged 15-44 years of age, accounting for 14% of deaths among males and 7% of deaths among females. On an average day, 1424 people are killed in acts of homicide almost one person every minute. Roughly one person commits suicide every 40 seconds. About 35 people are killed every hour as a direct result of armed conflict. In the 20th century, an estimated 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly as a result of conflict, and well over half of them were civilians. Studies have shown that in some countries, health care expenditures due to violence account for up to 5% of GDP.

For more information:Violence health topic <http://www.who.int/health_topics/violence/en>

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Domestic Homicides Decrease 71% for men, 25% for women since the mid 70s

Another decrease for both women and men in 2001:

These are the number of DV homicides of intimate partners using the DOJ definition (spouse, ex-spouse, girl-boyfriend, common-law spouses, and homosexual partner).

Female DV Homicides 1997: 1217 1998: 1323 1999: 1218 2000: 1247
2001: 1197 A rise in both 1998 and 2000 but a drop in 2001 to a level
below that of 1997. This represents a 25% drop since 1976 when the US first reported this data.

Male DV Homicides 1997: 451 1998: 515 1999: 426 2000: 440
2001: 397 A rise in both 1998 and 2000 but a drop in 2001 to a level
below that of 1997. This represents a 71% drop since 1976 when the US first reported this data.

This information is from the FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports published on line (this year's data will be available later this summer) on the Department of Justice web site, www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

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Non-fatal DV incidents decrease 49% for females, 42% for males since 1993.

Dramatic decrease in nonfatal domestic violence: from CAEPV
As with all other violent crimes, violence between intimates decreased substantially in recent years. From 1993 through 2001, intimate partner violence against females declined 49 percent, from 9.8 to 5.0 nonfatal victimizations per 1,000 female U.S. residents. Intimate violence against males fell 42 percent, from 1.6 such victimizations to .9 per 1,000 male residents during the same period. Intimate partner violence made up 20% of violent crime against women in 2001 and 3% of all nonfatal violence against men. To read more from the report, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993 - 2001, visit the Bureau of Justice statistics web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ipv01.htm .

Information about the data source: National Crime Victimization Survey
(NCVS) is the Nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization. Each year, data are obtained from a nationally representative sample of 42,000 households comprising nearly 76,000 persons on the frequency, characteristics and consequences of criminal victimization in the United States. The survey enables BJS to estimate the likelihood of victimization by rape, sexual assault, robbery, assault, theft, household burglary, and motor vehicle theft for the population as a whole as well as for segments of the population such as women, the elderly, members of various racial groups, city dwellers, or other groups.

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WORKPLACE FATALITIES DECREASE IN 2002
Working got safer in 2002, according to the government's annual tally of
workplace deaths, released 9/17/03. According to the US Department of Labor,
workplace fatalities fell by 6.6 percent in 2002 to the lowest level ever
recorded since the survey was first completed in 1992. There were 5,524
fatal work injuries recorded in 2002 (the 2001 national numbers showed 5,915
fatal work injuries, excluding the tragic toll of the 2,885 work-related
fatalities from the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks). California had the most
workplace fatalities with 478, followed by Texas with 417. Homicides were
the third leading cause of death at the workplace with 609 workplace
homicides. In some states -- like Illinois -- homicide was the leading cause
of death at work.

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Perpetrator Treatment/intervention programs:

Comprehensive church DV program uses effective treatment model within church settings without court orders: Emotional Regulation Model, 2003

The churches throughout Eugene, OR have gotten together and started a comprehensive Christian based approach to domestic violence. Their organization is called CAFA (Christians Addressing Family Abuse). Preliminary results from a survey of women whose spouses or partners participated in CAFA's batterer intervention program are partially available now and will be included as part of the larger evaluation of the Lane County coordinated community response to intimate partner violence sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The evaluation report will be in print by early fall. Carolyn Rexius MSW, is the coordinator of the CAFA program. Three women initiated the program, one was a therapist and the other two were survivors of abuse.

The reason this program represents a large breakthrough is that it involves men who might not otherwise be part of the criminal justice system, takes their faith into consideration in the healing process, and encourages them to come to treatment voluntarily. So far the program has been successful and it uses one of the new types of treatment models. Here are the highlights of this program.

Who's involved?
1. Clergy who are trained and are integral to the program. They preach on the issue, ask the right questions, understand the consequences of DV, and they participate in the interventions. The churches and clergy got involved after attending a seminar with Sarah Buel: 250 clergy came to the training.
2. Fifteen counselors of all denominations who are trained to use special treatment models including emotional regulation, scripture etc. (more on that later).
3. Couples who are involved in abuse and are now surrounded with support, love, the power of their faith and the expectation of accountability.

How does it work?
A person or couple come to pastor or are referred to the pastor because of DV or abuse. The pastor refers them to the program and accompanies the husband to the first group. The clergy also let's him know that he will not be able to continue in church ministries unless he attends group--so he is gently mandated, but most go to groups without court orders.

They use church based restraining orders if necessary to hold the men accountable but will support women to use legal restraining orders if husband is not responsible. Sometimes Carolyn goes with women to meet with the pastor to advocate for them, but now after two years that is not as necessary because pastors are more involved with the program. In the first two years all the men came without court orders. Now with more court referrals, the groups are 50% court ordered, 50% volunteer. This faith-based program is now offered as a choice in the court system and many men choose it.

The content of the treatment model:
52 week treatment model. Three main components:
1. Emotional regulation model akin to Rose Mary Boerboom's and Steven Stosny's programs with high accountability and responsibility
2. Tinker Toy Continuum Model of building people and understanding how they change. Use of scripture, faith, Biblical stories to reinforce the faith aspect of growth and healing.
3. Parenting model called Filial Play Therapy: how to be other-person centered, understand and reflect emotions (based on work of Bernard and Louise Guerney and Gary Candreth). Men pay for the groups (sliding scale) and insurance covers some. Support groups for women: use the emotional regulation model, wise women wheel, empowerment, accountability.

Preliminary Survey Results:
Audrey Block, an independent evaluator with RMC Research is tracking and publishing this CAFA data but early highlights are:
About 67% of the men are in marriages or live in partnerships when they attend groups. They are easy to track because they are in the congregations and the couples tend to stay together. 21% are separated.
85% of women who were spouses/partners with the men who completed the treatment program responded to the survey.
84% of the women said the quality of their lives has increased either some/quite a bit/ a lot since the treatment

Specific behavior changes reported by the women after treatment:
hit/push/grab/shove by husband; 81% said yes before treatment; 23% said yes after treatment
slap/hit by husband; 57% said yes before treatment; 8% said yes after treatment
husband throwing something; 47% said yes before treatment; 8% said yes after treatment
Richest source of information is the comments which will be available later

For a more comprehensive table of the survey questions and responses, please email me (Janet) and I'll forward Audrey's draft summary.

Total number of client intakes in the program since its inception is 235. 67 are currently in the program, in five groups. 82% of all the clients who completed an intake are either currently in a group or have completed a group. 90% of the men who are mandated into the program have either completed the program or were still in the program. (Compares with 50% average completion rate nationally for DV treatment programs).

The Eugene Register-Guard newspaper published an article on the program that appeared just a few weeks ago. I (Janet) have a copy on line and will forward it to anyone who would like one. Just email me for that.

Contact person: Carolyn Rexius mrexius@attbi.com 541-686-6000 PST. She is open to having people visit their program and she is willing to do training for groups who would like to start similar programs.

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News on new nationwide survey of causes of domestic homicide:
From Mpls Star Tribune, 22 August, 2003.
" Access to guns, threats to kill and, most of all, unemployment are the biggest predictors of the murder of women in abusive relationships," concludes a nationwide study conducted at Johns Hopkins School of Nursing. The study found that the most common relationship factors that independently increase risk include a home with a stepchild of the abuser, an abuser's highly controlling behavior and a woman separated from the abuser. Author of the study is Jacqueline Campbell, Professor, School of Nursing. The study appeared in the July, 2003 edition of the Journal of Public Health. For more information go to the John's Hopkins' School of Nursing web site. www.son.jhmi.edu or trace through google.com

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Research on children who suffer family violence: from CAEPV
Children who suffer family violence are at risk of perpetrating domestic abuse themselves once they reach adulthood, finds a study that followed over five hundred families for 20 years. Researchers at Columbia University say three factors are the strongest predictors: "serious behavior problems in adolescence, exposure to domestic violence, and power punishments by the parents-harsh discipline." Being subjected to physical abuse as a child was most likely to connect to violent romantic relationships later in life.

The study found no gender difference among the violent. Both men and women are equally likely to commit acts of physical aggression. More than 20 percent of both genders reported being violent with their partner; 5 percent of this violence brought injury to the partner. Researchers at Columbia first contacted 543 randomly selected children back in 1975. They, along with their parents, were interviewed in 1983, 1985 and 1991. The final survey, done in 1999, asked about aggressive behavior, romantic history and recent life changes. (SOURCE: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, August 2003.)

Research on Batterer Intervention Programs: from CAEPV The National Institute of Justice has released a new report, "Batterer Intervention Programs: Where Do We Go From Here," that examines the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs by analyzing the results of two different studies of batterer intervention programs in Broward County, Florida and Brooklyn, New York. Evaluations of both programs call into question the effectiveness of such programs in changing either batterer attitudes or behaviors. The Duluth Model was the model used in both intervention programs.

Researchers in the Broward study did find that batterers who were employed, married, owned their own homes, or otherwise had a stake in the community were less likely to re-offend. Although the Broward study was marred by low victim response rates, the collection of information from multiple sources reached similar conclusions, bolstering researchers' confidence in the results.

The Brooklyn study showed that men who attended treatment sessions for a longer period (26 weeks compared with 8 weeks) committed fewer new violent acts; however, batterers were more likely to complete the shorter program. The study left open the question of whether batterer intervention programs alter batterers' attitudes and behaviors or merely suppress violent behavior for the duration of the study. Adapted from the National Institute of Justice¹s website, available on the web at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/. To view the report, visit the web at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/new.htm#195079. (SOURCE: National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Legislative Update 7-31-03)

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Studies of Aggression in women:
Three researchers, funded by the NIH have come up with some challenging results about aggression in women. Here is their summary. If you would like to see the whole summary please email me at Jhagberg@mn.rr.com This article appeared in USA Today.
It is not just men who hit women. Women hit men, too. And the latest research shows that ignoring the role women play in domestic violence
does both women and men a disservice. There is little doubt that women get hurt more than men. She may slap him. But then he may hit her harder or more often.

Most researchers agree more women than men are seriously hurt in partner violence. Still, the newest findings challenge the feminist belief that "it is men only who cause violence," says psychologist Deborah Capaldi of the Oregon Social Learning Center. "That is a myth." By not understanding the mutual role they often play, women are at great risk for injury, new studies show. The number of women who hit first or hit back is "much greater than has been generally assumed," Capaldi says. She says she is surprised by the frequency of aggressive acts by women and by the number of men who are afraid of partners who assault them.

Capaldi and two other female researchers call for a re-evaluation of treatment programs nationwide. Such programs focus on men and ignore women. Men are court-ordered into some type of rehabilitation, and their women are told in support groups or shelters that they had nothing to do with the violence, Capaldi says. "Prevention and treatment should focus on managing conflict and aggression for both young men and women," Capaldi says. Each needs to understand the role both play while still putting a "special responsibility" on the man, who can inflict greater injury.

The three women did different studies but presented them as a team recently to a conference sponsored by the Society for Prevention Research. The National Institutes of Health sponsored much of the work. The researchers emphasize they are not blaming women. "We are not saying anybody is at fault," says psychologist Miriam Ehrensaft of Columbia University. "But new data is emerging that says women are also involved in aggression. If we do not tell women that, we put them at risk."

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Women's Fears about DV: (from CAEPV) --
A recent poll by the Center for the Advancement of women found that worries about domestic violence and sexual assault are primary concerns. The poll of 3,329 women 18 and older found that 92 percent prioritize domestic violence and sexual assault as a concern. Equal pay for equal work came in second at 90 percent.

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Costs of DV in the US:
The health-related costs of rape, physical assault, stalking and homicide committed by intimate partners exceed $5.8 billion each year,
according to a report released last week by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Costs of Intimate Partner Violence
Against Women in the United States estimates the incidence, prevalence and health-related costs of non-fatal and fatal intimate partner
violence against women. It also identifies future research needs and highlights CDC priorities for violence prevention research.

Victims of intimate partner violence often seek medical attention as a result of the violence. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence estimates
these health-related costs to be more than $5.8 billion annually. Of that amount, nearly $4.1 billion are for direct medical and mental
health care services, and nearly $1.8 billion are for the indirect costs of lost productivity or wages.

Nearly 90 percent of these costs are attributable to intimate partner to stalking, according to the report. The study breaks down the direct health costs of intimate partner violence by type of assault. The total medical and mental health care cost per victimization by an intimate partner is $838 per rape, $816 per physical assault and $294 per stalking.

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WOMEN'S ABUSE EXPERIENCE AND THEIR HIV STATUS

"Three quarters of the socio-demographically similar groups of HIV-positive
and HIV-negative women in our study experienced physical or sexual abuse
at some point in their lifetimes, rates that are much greater than those reported in national representative surveys," state the authors of an article published in the September 2003 issue of the Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. The study described in this article examined the experience of abuse among HIV-positive and HIV-negative low-income urban women. The study extends previous research comparing prevalence rates between the two
groups of women by describing elements contributing to the complexity of abusive situations, including the type of perpetrator, the number of abusive episodes, and the involvement of substance use (both alcohol and drug abuse).

During the period July 1997 to May 1999, investigators recruited and interviewed 310 HIV-positive and 301 HIV-negative women living in Baltimore, MD. The quantitative component of the interview measured sociodemographic characteristics; the lifetime prevalence of violence, including childhood violence, intimate partner violence, and non-intimate-partner violence; and the use of alcohol and drugs in the context of abusive episodes. Following completion of the quantitative portion of the interview, women who were either currently involved in
or had a recent history of an abusive relationship were randomly selected to participate in the in-depth interview process. Contextual information gathered from the women about specific abusive experiences were audio taped and transcribed.

The authors found that
* There were significant differences between HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women in the pattern of abuse they experienced as children, the frequency of abuse they experienced as adults, and whether or not they drank alcohol before or during an abusive episode.
* HIV-positive women were more likely to report having experienced both physical and sexual abuse (15%) as children than were HIV-negative women (9%).
* HIV-positive women who had been abused were significantly more likely than HIV-negative women to report being physically abused by an intimate partner three or more times.
* HIV-positive women were significantly more likely than HIV-negative women
to report that they had been drinking alcohol before or during abusive episodes.
* Women who were abused as children were significantly more likely to be abused as adults, compared with women who had not been abused as children.

"These findings have implications on many clinical and research fronts," conclude the authors. They suggest that "HIV prevention services need to be expanded to include violence and other elements of women's lives" and that"the field of HIV and lifetime abuse is in need of increased comprehensive investigation."

McDonnell KA, Gielen AC, O'Campo P. 2003. Does HIV status make a
difference in the experience of lifetime abuse? Descriptions of lifetime abuse
and its context among low-income urban women. Journal of Urban Health
80(3):494-509.

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