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July 9 Newsletter


Dear Friends,

Happy Summer. I hope you are getting a little R&R so you are ready for fall.

I case you missed it in the last newsletter, WE ARE MORE THAN A QUARTER OF THE WAY TO OUR GOAL OF 0 BY 2010 IN LESS THAN A QUARTER OF THE TIME WE ALLOTED. A drop of more than 400 DV murders of women from 1993-1997. We need to be half way there by the year 2002, so we hope for another reduction, down to 750 or fewer murders by then. Friends we are making it happen—TOGETHER. All over the country.

We plan to have a big celebration in the fall of 2002 to mark the half way point. That gives you all THREE YEARS to work at decreasing your homicide numbers so you feel like celebrating. We will reward every city or state who makes significant progress and we’ll announce categories yet this year. The cities/states who are seeing the biggest drops have active Results Projects so think about getting something going THIS YEAR so you have time to see it work.

We are getting a lot of enthusiasm about the Stosny Treatment Model and in this newsletter I highlight the most frequently asked questions about the model as well as a heirarchy of change that you will find interesting.

WE NEED YOUR HELP:

WE HAVE TWO STATES THAT NEED NEW ORGANIZATIONS TO COORDINATE SILENT WITNESS, VIRGINIA AND HAWAII. IF YOU HAVE ANY CONTACTS IN THOSE STATES; INDIVIDUALS OR ORGANIZATIONS PLEASE LET ME KNOW.WE WANT ALL STATES INVOLVED IN SW AND IN EVENTS THIS OCTOBER.

WELCOME MEW EMAIL CORRESPONDENTS:

Lisa Angell (educater, Center for Women and Families, Sellersburg, IN), Erin Heydinger (10-year-old SW supporter who attended the march from MN), Dr. Matilde Maddelano, Jimita Potter (SW Coordinator, Indiana), Stephanie Hughes (Ohio, new email address) Henry Williams (police sergeant, Kununurra subdistrict, Australia) Pamela Colbert (Victim Assistance Director, Cty Prosecutor’s Office, Sandusky, Ohio) Elena Giacci (DV and SA Coalition, Albuquerque, NM), Patrick O’Donnell (video training producer, Dayton,OH), Aly Morgan (country and gospel singer, SW supporter, Dallas).

 

 

NEWS FROM THE STATES:

NEW MEXICO:

We will soon have new sets of Silent Witnesses in New Mexico. Elena Giacci of the Bernalillo County DV and SA Coalition in Albuquerque and Vanessa of the Morningstar American Indian DV Center are both creating an exhibit honoring the women in that area who have been murdered in DV. They plan to have events in October and in February. When they dedicate the exhibit, Elena’s brother will do a blessing on the Witnesses and a drum group will participate in the ceremony. What a wonderful way to open the exhibit.

These agencies heard about the exhibit from our own Gloria Champion who spoke at a state-wide conference about her experiences with Silent Witness among the Navajo Nation.

*We are thrilled to hear this news. New Mexico is the 25th state to have multiple exhibits. Keep up the good work and keep spreading the word.

 

 

NORTH CAROLINA:

Donna Pygott, our stalwart coordinator in NC just put on a fabulous conference for the Victim Assistance Network in NC. She had Rose Mary Boerboom, our treatment expert there for a workshop and she was very well received. The word is spreading far and wide about effective treatment now with amazing results in several states. Here is Donna’s "short report." We’ll get more details later.

We had some of the best training ever, with some powerful speakers. I can’t believe how far we’ve come over the past severval years. We had 200 attendees, it was an excellent networking and training experience.

*Donna, we’re so excited for all the growth that has occurred in NC. And you are a passionate leader there. More power to you. Thanks for all your hard work on this conference.

 

 

TEXAS:

A woman called me the other day and asked if she could have the name of the Silent Witness coordinator in Washington DC. She lived in Dallas and she and her sister were taking their mother to Washington DC for a vacation. While they are there they want to see the Washington exhibit since their sister/daughter is one of the Washington Silent Witnesses. She has never seen the figure of her sister but she heard the march was powerful and her mother wants to see this tribute to her daugher that she has heard so much about.

*I was deeply touched by yet another family for whom we are part of the healing process. This healing work is so important for all of us.

Another note from Texas: Aly Morgan, a country and gospel singer who has performed nationally is taking on the Silent Witnesses as her cause. In her concerts she talks about domestic violence and the Silent Witness effort in Texas. Being a survivor herself, she speaks powerfully of the need for support and change and healing. She told me of examples of people at her concerts coming forward afterwards who have never talked about the issue before. And she is getting into a new venue that needs to address these issues—the churches.

*We are pleased to have Aly on board and we’ll look forward to a long and productive association with you.

 

 

CONNECTICUT:

Jan Fuhr updates us on CT plans for the October Silent Witness events:

To update you on the October workshop and vigil, the vigil is being planned for the evening of October 7th, and the workshop for October 8th. The witnesses will definately be at the vigil and I am assuming they will also be at the workshop. This is being held in Danbury, CT. As of this time, I have not heard from CCADV as to other October events happening around the state. I’ll keep you posted when I do.

*Ct did such a great job on last year’s event, bringing hearses loaded with Witnesses to downtown Danbury. It’ll be fun to see what they do this year. The hearses would be great to repeat.

 

 

INDIANA:

We heard from Jimita Potter of Indiana who says that Silent Witness is alive and well there. They make regular appearances in the community and they go around the state. The YWCA has finished research on their Court Watch in South Bend and I will report on it when I get in touch with them.

*It’s so good to know that exciting programs are moving forward in Indiana. Keep up the great work.

 

 

ARIZONA:

A welcome telephone call came from Diane Peterson, our coordinator in Arizona. She says that the latest with John (her husband and co-coordinator) is that the tumors that were growing fast in his lungs when this cancer treatment began in Dec. are now all scar tissue and the treatments can cease. They are not totally out of the woods yet but they feel they have a whole new lease on life and they are both excited to get their energy back and move forward with all of you and with Silent Witness.

Diane said that they could feel the love and prayers from so many Silent Witness supporters nationally and that those emails you sent from all over the country were unbelievable. What a great group of angels you all are.

She just got an email message from a woman starting a new campus program in Phoenix who would love to hook up her students with Diane and John to work on Silent Witness. And now that Laurie Rummel (from Nashville) is moving to Phoenix this summer, there will be a burst of energy in Arizona. YES.

*You are such go getters. We love you Diane and John. Everyone who heard you speak at the march or saw the video feels you are a friend. Go for it and feel our love.

 

 

AUSTRALIA:

This great note came from Henry Williams, a policeman from a remote part of Western Australia.

I have just visited your homepage and thoght I would introduce myself to your organisation. My name is Henry WILLIAMS and Iam a Police Sergeant and Chairperson of our town’s Family Violence Working Parting.

Our town is Kununurra and it is in a remote part of Western Australia. We have approximately 5000 residents most of whom are Aboriginals. Domestic and alcohol abuse are major problems facing our town.

In an attempt to raise awareness of Domestic Violence we ran your "Silent Witness" program with great success. We found that the figures caused people to ask questions about a subject that would normally be ignored.

We were so impressed with the program that we had the local High School make

a number of lifesize cutouts (made from a pattern from the display) and this

in itself caused conversation about Domestic Violence. anyway, a great display

In regards to the Silent Witness program, our working party was newly formed and we were trying to establish ourselves in a community that could only see "another committee" without a track record. We were not being taken seriously. I conducted research to try to establish something that would make a strong statement and establish our credentials. I was told about your Silent Witness program by the Domestic Violence Council (WA). When we managed to get it to Kununurra (some 3600 kilometres from Perth) I could see that we were on a winner. The display more than made up for the trials and tribulations getting it to us, not to mention the expense. Returning the display to Perth was evan more tedious however we overcome the problems and the story about it is worth telling.

*We are thrilled to hear that Silent Witness has reached the farthest corners of the globe. Just let us know how we can help move the healing forward in Australia.

 

 

OHIO:

I got a call from Patrick O’Donnell of Dayton, who along with his wife, is creating training video tapes for all of Ohio to use in starting Court Watch programs. He is eager to connect with the Court Watch programs that are going well across the country and we told him how much you are doing out there. This will be a great tape and we can make good use of it in other states as well. Thanks to the O’Donnells for this dedication to such a worthwhile purpose.

*See what great things are happening. The projects are mushrooming all over now.

Also from Ohio, a call from Kim Lust, a representative of the State Farm Insurance Company. They are planning to do a month-long awareness program in Columbus this year to make the corporative employees more conscious of the resources in the community. They may use the Silent Witnesses as part of this great happening. Recently one of their claims representatives in Toledo was murdered in domestic violence. The issue hit really close to home.

*We applaud corporations who are willing to do awareness and education programs.

More power to you, State Farm.

 

 

MINNESOTA:

Rose Mary has been on a roll with Dr. Stosny’s Treatment Model in the Twin Cities. She and Raven Mason, another treatment expert here spoke to the medical students at the University of Minnesota recently and it went very well. Rose met with a treatment provider from Australia who is very interested and went on to meet Dr. Stosny on his way home. She reports that we have nearly saturated the treatment community in the Twin Cities with the Stosny model and now we’re going to find out from probation and police in the coming months how much of a difference it is making.

We’ve already had an incident in which the police throught that one well known perpetrator’s behavior had changed so much that they were willing to testify for him in an incident involving a man who was beating him up.

*Minnesota, along with Wyoming, Montana, Maryland and North Carolina might be the first states to give us a reading on just how much of a difference this treatment model can make state wide. We’ll keep you posted. Great work, friends.

 

 

NEWS FROM NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS:

IDEAS FOR SILENT WITNESS EVENTS IN OCTOBER:

Vigils, memorial services, escorting SW from several cities to a central place with police escorts, buses to pick up SW and bring them from city to city, hearses to escort them to a central place, marches, night marches with candles, Capital events. Please let us know if there are more ideas.

TWO NEW REGIONAL DIRECTORS NAMED:

Two more angels have agreed to be Regional Directors for Silent Witness, to recruit all the states to have Silent Witness events in October. Gail Anthony of MN and Nadene Hanson of FL join the other ten I mentioned in the last newsletter. They will all help to spread the hope and inspiration of Silent Witness across the country.

STATES ON BOARD FOR OCTOBER SILENT WITNESS EVENTS SO FAR: 13 States. (If you’re planning something, please let us know) Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Washington State, Wyoming 

STATES WITH MULTIPLE SILENT WITNESS EXHIBITS: 25 (If there are others please let me know. It is just an oversight!!). Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming.  

STATES WITH RESULTS PROJECTS SO FAR: Please let me know if there are others.

DATA COLLECTION (Supplemental Homicide Reports) 48 States. All except Kansas and Montana.

OTHER RESULTS PROJECTS (Court Watch, Quincy, Stosny Treatment, DART/Mississippi) 36 States, 70 projects. Alaska, Arizona, California (3), Colorado (2), District of Columbia, Florida (5), Hawaii, Idaho (2), Illinois (3), Indiana (5), Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland (4), Massachusetts, Minnesota (8+), Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey (2), New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio (2), Oklahoma (2),South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee (2), Texas, Utah, Virginia (3), Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming (5).

 

GYNECOLOGISTS ON BOARD THE DV ISSUE

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynocologists’ Violence Against Women Webpage is up and running. Simply go to the ACOG homepage at www.acog.org and then click on "Violence Against Women." There you will find resources for clinicians, resources for girls and women, and updates on new legislation, policies and articles.

*We are grateful to the doctors who saw that this was an issue worth their support and education. Thanks. We are grateful.

 

 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ABOUT THE STOSNY’S COMPASSION BASED TREATMENT MODEL FOR PERPETRATORS:

There are so many people becoming interested in the Stosny Treatment Model for Perpetrators that we decided to answer some of the most common questions that come up in our sessions from those who have participated in other treatment models and wonder how this is different. Please pass this information along and if you would like a free introductory hour-long tape on this model, please contact us.

Q1. THE WORD COMPASSION SUGGESTS THAT DR. STOSNY IS ASKING US TO HAVE COMPASSION ON BATTERERS AND LET THEM OFF THE HOOK FOR THEIR BEHAVIOR.

A1. When Dr. Stosny says compassion he means that the batterer has to learn compassion on himself and then compassion with intimates. It does not mean that others need to excuse batterers behavior.

Q2. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE MOVEMENT BELIEVES THAT BATTERING IS NOT ABOUT ANGER BUT CONTROL, YET THE STOSNY APPROACH ADDRESSES ANGER REGULATION. WHY IS THAT?

A2. Battering IS about control but anger is one major way batterers choose to get control. Dr. Stosny addresses anger because anger is used to cover the core hurts of the batterers and thus avoid dealing with them.

Q3. WHAT ABOUT ANGER MANAGEMENT? WE KNOW THAT IT DOESN’T WORK.

A3. Anger management has come to mean a "time-out" or "put your hands in your pockets" approach to battering. Dr. Stosny uses the term EMOTIONAL REGULATION to mean the constant HEALING of the core hurts, not any temporary solution to anger. 

Q4. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE MOVEMENT BELIEVES THAT MALE PRIVILEGE PREVAILS IN OUR CULTURE AND THAT THE ONLY WAY TO SOLVE BATTERING IS TO RESTRUCTURE THE CULTURE. DR. STOSNY DOES NOT ADDRESS THAT. WHY NOT?

A4. Dr. Stosny believes that males do have privilege in our culture and that this situation needs to be addressed. However, it will take a long time to change that situation. In the meantime, he has shown by his research results that men’s behavior can be changed NOW so they do not control and exert power over intimates. This may be a first step in the restructuring of society.

While the political philosopyy of male privilege is useful, teaching it to batterers has not been shown to be successful in actually changing their behavior. In addition, research shows high rates of battering in lesbian and gay relationships, so more than male privilege needs to be addressed in this movement.

Q5. DR. STOSNY’S PROGRAM ADDRESSES SELF ESTEEM OF PERPETRATORS. THE DV MOVEMENT DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT SELF ESTEEM IS INVOLVED IN BATTERING BEHAVIOR. WHY ADDRESS IT?

A5. While self esteem may not be the root cause of battering, when perpetrators address their core hurts and heal them, to restore their core value, their self esteem rises as a result. People with higher self esteem can act more responsibly toward themselves and others and make changes more effectively.

Q6. WHAT ARE THESE CORE HURTS THAT DR. STOSNY IS REFERRING TO?

A6. The core hurts are these (in descending order, meaning the first ones are less devasting than the last ones): DISREGARDED, ACCUSED, DEVALUED, REJECTED, POWERLESS, DEFECTIVE, UNLOVABLE, UNFIT FOR HUMAN CONTACT.

Q7. THE VIDEO "SHADOWS OF THE HEART" INCLUDED IN DR. STOSNY’S PROGRAM LOOKS LIKE JUST A WOUNDED CHILD EXCUSE FOR BATTERING. EXPLAIN.

A7. "Shadows of the Heart" is shown solely to compel the batterers to feel compassion at the first treatment session so they know they are capable of it. Dr. Stosny has found that everyone is capable of having compassion on little children and this video is only about compassion, not about the wounded child syndrome. His is not a therapy program but a healing and skill development program that heals the core hurts.

Q8. IN DR. STOSNY’S RESEARCH WOMEN SURVIVORS RESPONDING TO THE INTERVIEWERS MIGHT BE ANSWERING THAT THEY ARE LESS BATTERED SIMPLY BECAUSE THEIR BATTERERS INTIMIDATE THEM TO ANSWER THAT WAY TO AVOID MORE BATTERING. THEY ARE AFRAID TO BE TRUTHFUL. HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS TRUE?

A8. Survivors are never interviewed when the perpetrator is in the home. They repeatedly show they like to be called by the researcher since they offer additional information about how well it is going. And the groups are so well liked that many perpetrators have suggested the group to their male friends who come voluntarily to the sessions. In addition, they are bringing this information to work and sharing it with male coworkers. This is unheard of in the treatment community.

Q9. HOW DOES DR. STOSNY INSURE THE SAFETY OF SURVIVORS WHEN RUNNING BATTERERS GROUPS?

A9. If batterers do not show up for group without advanced permission (one miss is allowed) the leader immediately calls the court to report that fact. If the batterer misses two groups he is automatically dropped from the course and the court and survivor are notified immediately.

Q10. WHAT DOES 87% SUCCESS RATE MEAN? THIS SOUNDS UNBELIEVABLE.

A10. In the comparison study with the most prevalent agency model both survivor groups were asked the same questions using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The question of whether the survivor experienced any unwanted touch (kick, slap, shove) was the question upon which the outcome of success was based. 87% of the survivors who remained in relationship with the perpetrators reported no unwanted touch after one whole year. (71% verbal violence free). If Dr. Stosny would have included all the survivors, including those whose perpetrators had left the relationship, the success rate would be over 93%, but he has no way of proving that those perpetrators do not go out and abuse other women.

In contrast, the agency model showed that 41% of the survivors reported no unwanted touch after one year. (25% verbal violence free). The study deliberately did not use police reports on rearrest because perpetrators can do a lot of battering and unwanted touching without bruising which would not warrent arrest. This unwanted touch is a much more conservative measure than most treatment research is based upon.

Q11. INTERVENTION RESEARCH IS USUALLY BASED ON VERY FEW CASES. HOW MANY PERPETRATORS HAVE BEEN THROUGH STOSNY’S GROUPS AND HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN HIS RESEARCH.

A11. Dr. Stosny has 175 men in his research base (as of 1998) and the same rate of success (using no unwanted touch as criteria) prevails. Another agency has run 16 groups with even better results. This is a very large number compared to other research results.

Q12. HAVE ANY OTHER GROUPS REPLICATED DR. STOSNY’S MODEL WITH EQUAL SUCCESS?

A12. Several groups in more than twelve states have begun groups and the reports are very positive. One agnecy has done as rigorous research as Dr. Stosny. This is Catholic Charities of Prince George’s County. They have run 16 groups and have an even better success rate than Dr. Stosny in that fewer men drop out because their groups are smaller. The average drop rate nationally for batterrs groups is about 50%. Dr. Stosny’s groups have a 24% drop rate and Catholic Charities has a 15% drop rate. Other comparative research will soon be underway in MInnesota.

Q13. DR. STOSNY ALLOWS SURVIVORS IN HIS GROUPS AT THEIR REQUEST. ISN’T THAT JUST ENCOURAGING THE BATTERRS TO PASS THE BLAME AND NOT TAKE RESPONSIBILITY?

A13. Dr. Stosny has had survivors come to him saying that they are so impressed with the changes in their partner that they wanted to be in the group. He allows them to attend but not to be in the same small groups, so no perpetrator can use power tactics in the sessions. After they learn the HEALS proces they don’t need to blame survivors anyway but he insures that they don’t.

He teaches in his classes that the survivor IS NOT RESPONSIBLE for the battering and that no blame is acceptable on the part of the perpetrator. Survivors have found that the HEALS model is useful to them too, in sorting out their own feelings and learning not to react to control tactics from others, at work or at home. Current research shows a dramatic drop in anxiety (46%) and anger (44%) on the part of survivors. His model is not a "couples counseling" model, and never assumes that the survivors are responsible for the abuse.

Q14. THE CONFLICT TACTICS SCALE HAS BEEN CRITICIZED BY THE TREATMENT COMMUNITY BECAUSE IT INDICATES THAT SURVIVORS WHO RESPOND TO VIOLENCE CAN BE VIOLENT TOO, THUS ALLOWING PEOPLE TO ASSIGN BLAME TO THE SURVIVORS. THIS SEEMS DANGEROUS AND UNSAFE FOR SURVIVORS.

A14. Dr. Stosny uses thee CTS only with perpetrators to see whether survivors ARE SAFE after the treatment. He never uses it to measure survivors behavior. He is studying the healing effects of his model on PERPETRATORS. Research shows that even if survivors do react to violence by hitting or other means, they (survivors) are still 7-10 times more likely to be physically wounded by the assaults of the perpetrators because of the difference in strength and size.

Q15. ISN’T THIS JUST ANOTHER CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODEL THAT TEACHES SURVIVORS TO COMPROMISE OR TREAD LIGHTLY AROUND BATTERERS (WALKING ON EGGS)?

A15. Although the end result of the HEALS proces is the ability of the batterer to solve problems with his partner using compassion, the method of getting there goes far deeper than a "reasonable approach to fighting" model. Dr. Stosny teaches the batterer to find the core hurts underneath the behavior or motivating the behavior and heal them so the person becomes a reasonable person who is now able to restore core value and not take out aggression and anger by controlling others. They may need additional support and education to continue their healing, but they now have a way to stop their battering and aggressive behavior.

Q16. WOULD THERE BE ANY WAY TO COMBINE TWO PREVAILING MODELS OF INTERVENTION OR TREATMENT AND GET THE BENEFITS OF BOTH?

A16. Dr. Stosny does not have any quarrels with the philosophical or political approaches of the other models (male privilege, power and control). He sees these behaviors as symptoms of the lack of attention to core hurts. Dr. Stosny invites collaboration, as long as the HEALS model of self compassion is an early part of the program and seen as the avenue to healing.

One other crucial difference is that the Stosny model must be taught as a closed ended group with no one entering after the second session. Once HEALS is taught, the batteres who do not learn that with the rest of the group, remain defensive and do not understand the rest of the program, thus disrputing the group. HEALS needs to be taught early in the program or the defenses will remain high.

Q17. HOW DO I GET MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS PROGRAM AND THE FOUNDATIONAL PRINCIPLES?

A17. Dr. Stosny’s web site is www.compassionpower.com His email is stosny@compassionpower.com Our Silent Witness mentor on this program is Rose Mary Boerboom. Her email is rosemaryb12@earthlink.net or tel. 612-936-0973. Training programs are available. Please inquire about them. 

 

 

THE WAY PEOPLE CHANGE: WHAT IT HAS TO DO WITH TREATMENT

Another valuable piece of information on how people actually change might be interesting to those of you who are working within the treatment or shelter community. This really got our attention. Notice especially that our beliefs and our values, along with skills and environment have very little to do with how people change and have little affect on the transformative change that is necessary in order to reduce battering.

 

Hierarchy of Change

The effects of intervention on individual change are more pervasive if you start at the top. Intervention on the top items has more far-reaching and reliable effect on the bottom items than changes on the bottom items can have on the top.

1. Connection (to one another: e.g., attachment, friendship, and to something larger: e.g., community committment, religious conversion, political or social activism).

2. Sense of self (experience of self, what it feels like to be you, includes self concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-nurturing, identity).

3. Identity (who you are, what you expect of yourself, how you expect others to react to you).

4. Emotional regulation (intensity, duration, action impulse, and meaning of feelings are adjusted internally, allowing a range of situationally appropriate, proactive and reactive emotional experience).

5. Beliefs (assumptions, interpretations, values).

6. Capacity (ability to learn, positively affect the environment, adapt).

7. Skill.

8. Change of environment.

 

These are the levels that Dr. Stosny's Treatment program addresses. Many treatment programs address beliefs and learning capacity primarily, but this information suggests that we need to go deeper than that for healing.

 

 

 

 FINDINGS FROM A NEW BOOK ON DV BY DOBASH AND DOBASH

In a new book called "Rethinking Violence Against Women" (Sage, 1998) two domestic violence pioneers provide important research developments from Canada. Summarized in the Domestic Violence Report, June/July 1999.

Here are a few of the interesting highlights:

Results of the Canadian Violenst Against Women Survey shows that when various isolation factors were analyzed, having children in the home was found to be unrelated to domestic violence against women.

Contrary to expectation, the rate of domestic violence tended to be higher when other adults lived in the household. The other adults were often young adults who were either supportive of the abuser or afraid for their own safety to intervene.

The isolation variable that most strongly predicted abuse was that the couple lived in a comon-law relationship and that the man intentionally isolated the woman or limited her authority by denying her access to the family income.

Next in predictive power was the length of time the man was unemployed, followed

by whether the woman was unemployed.

In addition, the survey found that as a man’s education and income increased the odds that he assualted his female partner decreased. Women were most often assaulted when women were young or the marriage was less than three years old.

However when murder occurs the most important finding was that battered women and their children are placed at greatest risk of being killed by their abusers when the woman has children from a prior relationship. (A woman is twenty-five times more likely to be killed if she has children by a previous partner.)

In addition, the researchers learned that a young woman is actually more likely to be killed if her husband is considerably older than she is. This age disparity does not hold for assault however.

 

 I leave you with a quote from yours truly, from a book about creativity and spirituality.

"You have to stay close to the center if you want to live on the edge."

Cheers,

Janet

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